Sudden explosions and start showing style and panic attacks with a special kind of anxiety, particularly panic disorder, can occur in several psychiatric disorders.Panic attacks, panic disorder typically seen in a recurring feature shows and reveals an unexpected moment.Is accompanied by the fear of a new attack often spend the table.
The results of epidemiological studies in various countries showed that the prevalence of lifelong 1.52.5% of panic disorder.The lifetime prevalence of panic attacks, although it varies according to the diagnostic criteria, were between 7% and 9% in many countries.
Panic disorder patients may be admitted to the clinic also often related to other areas of expertise.Vestibular disorders in 15% of patients admitted, 16% of patients admitted to the cardiology clinic, panic disorder, 35% of those admitted to hospital with symptoms were reported to be suffering from hyperventilation.
Panic disorder is most commonly starts in the period between late adolescence and the 30s.I clinical sample, the average age of onset is around 25.Panic disorder, although smaller amounts can also start in childhood or over 40 years old.Depending on whether it varies with the age of onset of agoraphobia with panic disorder;panic disorder with agoraphobia more often in the early 20s, while panic disorder without agoraphobia has been reported that more often begins in the late 20s in age.
More commonly seen in women with panic disorder is a common finding in several epidemiological and clinical studies.The ratio of women to men is about 3/1.Especially in patients with panic disorder with agoraphobia, ratio of men to women is increasing in favor of women.
The basic defect in affect (afekt) where the suspected disease group, mood disorders (mood disorders) or mood disorders (affective disorder) is called. Mood in this disease disorders emerge in the form of two main tables: the patient’s extreme joy, mobility and size sensation experienced by manic episodes and inability to enjoy life, depression you feel is calm and silent that depression periods. In addition, the symptoms of these two periods, may also occur as mixed together (mixed episode). These periods are usually persistent improvement a few months later but the trend is repetition.
Babylonian, Egyptian, Hebrew and Chinese culture depression (melancholy) and which would be the portrayal of the manic state, for the first time systematically identify the person who, in 400 BC, Hippocrates was. Hippocrates melancholy of ‘black bile tarnishing its effects on the brain of the soul’ as defining the first time, was going through a mental illness also established a relationship between brain biochemistry. The Kapadokya’l the Aretaeus of Cappadocia, the basic features of mania (euphoria, grandiosity, psychomotor excitation) was defined. By mentioning that there may be irritable and may also be added to the table psychotic symptoms he has been coined the concept of current mania in a sense.Furthermore, the mania and melancholy, and their etiology said that they were two different views of a single disease. Settled in medieval thought later in Europe ‘mental disease as a result of the seizure of the body of the devil’ is based on the views, it took the development turning the ancient Greek text of the scientific development of Arab medicine in this period. Ibn Sina, the underlying personality characteristics, mania, and stressed the role of the emergence of different display formats such as melancholy; Imam Ibn father’s melancholy temperament interaction of defects in sperm by adding the description, he has been referred to the role of genetic factors. Islamic and developing the humane treatment approaches to patients with mental In Chinese medicine, the pressure area under torture by the Inquisition and the mentally ill in Europe was so roots, took Despite the Renaissance and 16th century, Vesalius when the first human anatomical dissection, it was forced to pay with life. Nevertheless, the 16th and 17th century appeared generally available in the scientific viewpoint of Aretaeus of Cappadocia. 18th and 19th century, with the emergence of a mental hospital, was born ability to systematically examined patients. Until that time, mania word ‘madness’ when moving with synonyms; melancholy as well, basically as a logic and thought disorder, was used in the sense of the madness. However, in 1840 Esquirol, melancholic and associated symptoms of paranoid basis under a ‘affective disorders’ was the first psychiatrist said he would be lying. This opinion Mausley Anglo-Saxon literature Henry’s ‘affective disorders’ passed by the term. In the early 19th century ‘clinical-anatomical perspective, it began to change the concept and was believed to be the disease’s symptoms of psychiatric illness under the anatomical lesions. However, such a connection gösterilemeyin of this approach, took the concept of downloading from the lesion tissue and organ cells and eventually ‘physiological dysfunction’ took shape. In addition, the ‘act of madness’ divided into pieces, three pieces of mental illness were partitioned and function, that ‘intellectual, emotional and iradesel’ areas, was adopted to meet separately can ill.Thus, intellectual schizophrenia and paranoia; emotional deterioration of mania and depression; iradesel deterioration was in the area of the psychopathy concept will develop.Falret, in 1851, manic, depressed and uncertain time for the normal intermediate periods (intervals) by talking about going as a separate disease, it ‘folie circulaire’ was the name.Three years later Baillarger, but the concept is similar to the interval being the minor who Falret ‘folie a double former was defined. A similar change was also the case for depression: the concept of melancholy in the early 19th century, ‘remain stuck to a particular group of thought’ as indicating a logic and thought disorder, ‘partial’ was considered madness.Esquirol, ‘a glorified grief habit of popular language being used in the sense of melancholy that term should be abandoned, leaving the poet’, an extreme grief, he said that a brain disease associated with this disorder. Delasiauv to ‘this is not merely a mood of constant feelings of depression and excessive’ saying, ‘depression’ in the technical sense of the term was used for the first time. Terms increasingly widespread at the end of the century were gradually ‘mental depression’, the term began to replace the melancholy. Today Kraepelin bipolar disorder can be considered the father of the concept of endogenous psychosis in 1896, two parted as manikdepresif madness and dementia praecox. Meticulous between 1899-1915, at the end of a methodological longitudinal course observation, all the melancholy and mania forms of ‘manic-depressive illness’ title combining, diseases that go with full recovery intervals, can exhibit very different disease forms of the patients during the induction and disease familial loading have shown that he also stressed. However, this clarity saving development SEEM that these limits include all patients were found with several approaches: Bleuler, expanding the concept of the right mood swings of manic-depressive illness of all kinds; the name of the concept of schizophrenia dementia praecox, a vehicle going beyond ending with destruction. Also, in 1900, Wernicke’s only just that in the form of mania or depression, characterized by manic-depressive illness argued that these are different disorders. In 1928, Kleist, ‘unipolar and bipolar disorders brought’ concept.Leonhard 1950s and 60s, Angst, Perris and Winokur, ‘bipolar trending’ manikdepresif different from the disease, ‘unipolar trending’ They speak of a depressive disorder. Also in this period, psychosocial external causes ‘reaction’ is emerging (exogenous) and featured a genetic basis, that arise due to intrinsic biological factors (endogenous) concept of affective disorders were also discussed. Thus, endogenous-exogenous, unipolar-bipolar affective concepts and disorder issues in place of psychological factors, significantly occupied space in the 20th century debate. Ultimately, however, endogenous-exogenous distinction, first out of the manic-depressive illness, transferred into depression, then seen that too much in common, and switch between exogenous and endogenous depression, a conceptual change, a ‘endogenous and exogenous symptom profiles’ means registration. The distinction Uni-bipolar, unipolar and bipolar depressive illness that ended with the adoption of a separate disorder from manic depressive illness. As for the role of psychological factors, psychological factors and ignored the first half of the 20th century extreme defense mechanism ‘reactions disease rather than the concept was being driven forward. In fact, the first American Diagnostic and Classification System in 1952, DSM-I, Meyer and felt the weight of Freud and ‘was referred to manic-depressive reaction. However, the DSM-II in 1967, the manic-depressive illness, a psychological reaction to be very, began to emphasize that related to biological factors. Feign and Spitzer, signs and symptoms of identification and inclusion and exclusion criteria for the diagnosis of disease introduction into their development efforts. These studies Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC) and the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (SADS) ‘s assertion and lead to the emergence of the DSM-III in 1980, the mood brought angle disorder on the current view. Current view representing the DSM-IV and ICD-10 diagnostic and system partitioning approaches are presented in this section.
Classical psychoanalytic theory, Freud’s views on the basis of different, but history includes several assumptions or into each other’s perspectives.Each assumption represents an attempt for people to understand and explain the organization and function of the mental apparatus.Each one put forward to explain normal and neurotic thoughts and behavior, but constitute a separate integrity and concepts which are thought to actually complement each other, they find their meaning when taken together.
In this section, in order to understand the etiology of neurosis and psychopathology, developed at different periods by Freud and the psychoanalytic theory basis for the opinions it is discussed considering a certain integrity.
Topographic theory and the Unconscious
Two basic assumptions
Psychoanalytic theory is based on two fundamental assumptions.The first of these, ‘psychological determinism is an assumption.According to this hypothesis, behavior, feelings, thoughts and actions including all mental events are not random, is made as a result of previous events as causal.In other words, every mental event is another event which is determined by the premise itself.The second assumption is related to the location and the meaning of unconscious mental processes.Accordingly, mental processes are often and watch a great importance in the unconscious.There are complementary nature of the two assumptions.Considering that takes place entirely in the consciousness of the spiritual event, and we tried to explain the data on them is only consciousness, it is impossible to understand the mental processes.
Unconscious psychological processes is no way of being able to observe directly.Such processes evidence for the first time, obtained during use of hypnosis as a treatment method.After waking up from a person under hypnosis when asked to perform a certain action, it observed his desired when awakened.Meanwhile, it is done just as conscious action.Considerations related to the action, the effect of giving the order, all the memories of my hypnotic state is unconscious.The most important clue to the nature of unconscious material, which is the basic rule of psychoanalysis, the patient’s mind as it stated that it thought that was obtained with the use of the technique of free association.
In normal mental events are unconscious process of dream products can be seen at the open investigation.Psychoanalysis has shown that there are active behind every dream unconscious thoughts and desires. www.psychologyinfo.net Psychology Health Information
Acute Stress Disorder and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
The fact that experience heavy or witness a traumatic event can affect the mental health of people for a long or short term.Major trauma, everyone living on less influence and lead to some mental health problems.The posttraumatic reactions that are not uniform.After the traumatic experience that can be seen for various reasons other than trauma, depression, panic disorder, an increase in alcohol and substance abuse, dissociative disorders, adjustment disorders, develop mental illnesses that can vary over a wide range such as somatoform disorders.
Located between anxiety disorders Acute Stress Disorder (ASD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after trauma are developing the disease.
According to the meta-analysis of potentially traumatic events on the risks associated with sex, it is expected to further development of PTSD in women and men.Women are not sexual conflict, accident, fire and similar traumas rare than men;but live as adult and childhood sexual abuse more often than men in the circuit.Accident and domestic violence are widespread and you, a country located in the earthquake zone trauma-related mental problems in Turkey is a substantial level.The main factors that cause psychological trauma are divided into three groups.Earthquakes, natural disasters such as floods;accident and omissions;a sudden loss of close to, war, torture, physical attacks made by human hands, such as sexual violence.This common feature of unexpected events occur, the person is alive and feelings of helplessness and powerlessness on being outside its control.When such events take place, the event live directly and indirectly affected people living nearby, and also involved in the rescue.
Acute Stress Reaction (ASR) immediately after experiencing the traumatic experience, it takes a maximum of one month and signs are flashing.The PTSD diagnosis can be made after the first month.If persistent problems for more than six months (chronic) receives a diagnosis of PTSD.In case of delayed-onset PTSD symptoms begin at least six months after the traumatic event.